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Sibyla

26. 10. 2007
Sibyly , ktore zosobňovali odhalenie Boha a jeho správy spasenia od starovekeho poklenia , je vyobrazena v bočných uličkách kostola.Podľa legendy , oni prišli zo všetkých národov vtedajšieho známeho sveta , a zastupovali univerzálnu povahu bozieho odkazu.Muz ,povereny počas spravy nad mestom  /alberto aringhieri/ dal rozkaz na vykonanie prace a dielo bolo vykonane rôznymi umelcami v 1482 az 1483, portréty boli všeobecne zostavené v bielom mramore ,položene proti čiernemu pozadiu , s tehlovo červeným vonkajsim ramom ,diela boli sprevádzane registrovanými cennými papiermi na ich identifikovanie,a symboly odkazujúc sa na ich proroctvá s ohľadom na znak a epizódu jejich života. podľa tradície ,niektore z proroctiev prišli z božských inštitúcií ,dielo malo od začiatku krstného autora , Lactantiusa. Biely portrét osobnosti činia dojem ako série klasických sôch ktorých obklopuje obrazne ďaleko viac komplexnej symboliky v stupnej hale. Ako bolo povedané zhora , pôvodné diela sa dátujú k začiatku roku 1480...

Obrazek

Obrazek

Obrazek

Obrazek

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Obrazek 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The sibyls , which personify the revelation of christ and his message of salvation to ancient mankind , are portrayed in the side aisles of the church.According to legend , they came from all the nations of the then known world , and represented the universal nature of the christian message.commissioned during the rectorship of alberto aringhieri and executed by various artist in 1482 and 1483, the portraits were generally composed in white marble ,laid against a black background , with a brick red surface below , and a chcecker board motif frame. they were accompanied by inscriptions identifying them ,and symbols referring to their prophecies regarding christ and the episodes of his life. according to tradition ,some of the prophecies came from divine institutions a work by the early christian pologist and writer , lactantius. the white portrait figures impress one as a series of classical statues which surround the figuratively far more complex allgories in the nave. as mentioned above , the original works date back to the beginning of the 1480, some have been restored in the coourse of the centuries and in spire of the particular stylistic traits which reflect the different artist personalities they form a very homogeneous group. the first figure to meet the eye when one enters from the right hand door of the facade is the delphic sibyl , executed by the stone cutters giuliano di biagio and vito di marco. the sibyl , robe , holds burning torch in her left hand. her right hand rests on a scroll , supported by a sphynx with open wings , containing the inscription "ipsum tuum cognosce deum qui dei filius est" which refers to the nature of christ. according to carli , on the basis of stylistic elements , this work can be attributed to either sassetta son giovanni di stefano whom del bravo believes to be the author of the statues in the corners of the cathedral lantern or antonio federighi who may once have been a pupil of jacopo della quercia and later was the highly original sculptor of extraordinarily imaginative and decorative statues and stonework groups ,such as the holy weter stoups of the cathedral. next is the cimmerian sibyl , which in carli"s opinion was executed from yet another design by giovanni di stefano , this attribution supplants the old theory , which ascribed the decorative project to vito di marco and luigi ruggero who were presumably only responsible for the execution of the designs. the sibyl is elderly , with long flowing hair and a high waisted robe , she holds a scroll with the inscription : "et mortis fatum fini et trium dierum somno suscepto tunc a mortuis regressus in lucem veniet primum resurrectionis initium ostendens" which refers to the resurrection of the christ . behind her , two cherubs cary a panel bearing the sibyl name , in latin cumaea. the cumaen sibyl in latin cumana was certainly sculpted by giovanni di stefano in 1482 when on july 19th, he was paid for his was interpreted by medieval traditional as a prophecy of the coming of christ : the verses appear in the inscription held up by two winged chrubs : " ultima cumaei venit iam carmini aetas mango ab integro saeclorum nascitur ordo iam redit et virgo redeunt saturnia regna iam nova progenies caelo dimittitur alto " the elderly woman holds a branch perhaps an olive branch in one hand and book , the symbol of her prophecies in the other.her head is enwrapped in turban , and the sibylline oracles , the books containing the pagan prophecies , burn at the feet. the fourth sibyl in the right aisle , the erythraean sibyl , was designed by antonio federighi , who received payment for his work on july 19th ,1482. but the figure has been almost totally recomposed , and no sign would be left of the sienese master hand , had he not placed his signature at the foot of the lectern against which the young sibyl leans. her prophecy concerns the birth of christ. the figure is elegantly clad in a robe with a tight wimple and an unusual head dress. the last sibyl in the right aisle , and the only figure in the group to have been executed in 1483 ,is the persian sibyl , for which urbano da cortona was paid on october 3rd of that year . it , too , certainly must have been recomposed , for its position in front of the bell tower entrance undoubtedly led the marble inlay to wear out . it should be noted its stylistic similarities to the albunean sibyl have led carli to attribute the design of the figure to the painter benvenuto di giovanni . the slim zoung woman , with two veils fluttering at the sides , holds a book in her left hand and points to a tablet resting on the triangular based lectern with her right. the inscription on the tablet refers to the miracle of the loaves and fishes , workeed by christ. the first figure that one encounters after crossing over to the left aisle is the libyan sibyl ,situated before the entrance door and portrayed as a dark skinned woman for she represents africa ,her native land. her head is crowned with a wreth of flowers. in her left hand is a scroll,and in her right hand , an open book showing the insription : "colaphos accipiens tacebit. dabit in verbera innocens dorsi," which refers to the flagellation of christ and indicates the tablet supported by vase with a flower and two snakes entwined around it. the tablet is inscribed with the words : " in manus iniquas veniet. dabunt deo alapas manibus incestis. miserabilis et ignominiosus miserabilibus spem praebebit." the chronicles of the sienese historian , tizio , attribute this panel to the painter guidoccio cozzarelli a collaborator of mateo di giovanni , who executed the figure in 1483.

hellespontian sibyl , presumably executed in 1483 , follows. the absorbed expression of the sibyl face and self possessed elegance of her bearing reveal the style of neroccio di bartolomeo landi /1447 till 1500/ a sienese painter and sculptor whose disturbingly beautiful wooden statue of saint catherine stands in the oratory dedicated to the saint in the city contrada dell'oca. in the niche in the background of the panel , above the allegory of the dog and the lion shaking paws , the most curious of the allegories portrayed with the sibyls is an inscription which reads : " in cibum fel in sitim acetum dederunt , banc in hopitalitatis mostrabunt mensam. templi vero scindetur velum et medio die nox erit tenebrosa tribus boris." it refers to the very last moments of the passion of christ and to his death on the cross . this allegory has been interpreted in many ways , but as has been suggested above , the most intersting interpretation is the one proposed by ohly , whose study of the symbols of early christian iconography lead him to see in it the jews ,represented by the dog , and the pagans , represented by the lion , redeemed by the death of christ , instead of siena and florence making peace , which is unrelated to the gospel text inscribed in the panel.

enzo carli ascribes the central sibyll of the left aisle , the phrygian sibyl to benvenuto di giovanni. like the other sibyls in ths area , it was finished in 1483 and bore the traditional attribution to luigi di ruggero and vito di marco who , however , seem to have been mere executors in laying the marble. this sibyl features a raised book , level with her head , opened to a page inscribed with the words "solus deum sum,et non est alius deus" referring to the unity of god. the other insciption is concerned with her last judgment : " tuba de caelo vocem luctuosam emisit et tartareum chaos ostendet dehiscens terra. venient ad tribunal dei reges omnes. deus ipse indicans pios simul et impios. tunc demum impios insignem et tenebras mittet qui autem pietatem tenent iterum vivent." below the niche with the inscribed tablet , three souls are shown rising up from the ground , after the day of judgment. the pavement decoration continues with the samian sibyl , which matteo di giovanni signed , and which bears the date 1483 at the bottom of the base supporting the tablet inscribed with words : " tu enim stulta iudaea deum tuum non cognovisti lucentem mortalium mentibus , sed et spinis coronasti borridumque fel miscuisti." the inscription refers to the skepticism of the jews when it came to recognizing christ. the dynamic figure of the sibyl , with ribbons flying frm her braided hair and veils twisting round her sleeves , is in complete harmony with the sharp and expressive manger of the siense artist , whose prolificacy is evidenced in the many altarpieces he executed for the churches of the commune of siena and its territory.

and now the last sibyl of the aisle ,the albunean or tiburtine sibyl , appears. it was attributed to benvenuto di giovanniin 1752 by pecci, who connected the panel with a payment made to the artist on may 18th ,1483 for a design of the same subject. like most of the sibyls the tiburtine figure was restored between 1864 and 1865. on the tablet that ribbons connect to a small angel head is the prophetic annunciation of the birth of christ :"nascetur christus in bethlehem. annunciabitur in nazareth regnante tauro pacifico fundatore quietis. o felix mater cuius ubera illum lactabunt." the sibylic figure is monumental and self possessed , in accordance with the stylistic canons of benvenuto , and even the dynamic motif of her flowing robes becomes symmetrical and harmonizes with her serene , statuesque attitude.

 
 

 

 

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